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Dementia Due to HIV Disease Symptoms and DSM-IV Diagnosis

Dementia Due to HIV Disease Symptoms and Diagnosis Overview:

Dementia Due to HIV Disease symptoms and diagnostic criteria follow below. While some of these Dementia Due to HIV Disease symptoms may be recognized by family, teachers, legal and medical professionals,  and others, only  properly trained mental health professionals (psychologists, psychiatrists, professional counselors etc.) can or should even attempt to make a mental health diagnosis. Many additional factors are considered in addition to the Dementia Due to HIV Disease symptoms in making proper diagnosis, including frequently medical and psychological testing considerations. This information on Dementia Due to HIV Disease symptoms and diagnostic criteria are for information purposes only and should never replace the judgment and comprehensive assessment of a trained mental health clinician. 


294.9 Dementia Due to HIV Disease

The essential feature of Dementia Due to HIV Disease is the presence of a dementia that is judged to be the direct pathophysiological consequence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Neuropathological findings most commonly involve diffuse, multifocal destruction of the white matter and subcortical structures. The spinal fluid may show normal or slightly elevated protein and a mild lymphocytosis, and HIV can usually be isolated directly from cerebrospinal fluid. Dementia that is associated with direct HIV infection of the central nervous system is typically characterized by forgetfulness, slowness, poor concentration, and difficulties with problem solving. Behavioral manifestations most commonly include apathy and social withdrawal, and occasionally  these may be accompanied by delirium, delusions, or hallucinations. Tremor, impaired rapid repetitive movements, imbalance, ataxia, hypertonia, generalized hyperreflexia, positive frontal release signs, and impaired pursuit and saccadic eye movements may be present on physical examination. Children may also develop Dementia Due to HIV Disease, typically manifested by developmental delay, hypertonia, microcephaly and basal ganglia calcification. Dementia in association with HIV infection may also result from accompanying central nervous system tumors (e.g., primary central nervous system lymphoma) and from opportunistic infections (e.g., toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus infection, cryptococcosis, tuberculosis, and syphilis), in which case the appropriate type of dementia should be diagnosed (e.g., 294.1 Dementia Due to Toxoplasmosis). Unusual systemic infections (e.g., Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) or neoplasms (e.g., Kaposiís sarcoma) may also be present.

Information from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV

Also, See other Diagnosis and Symptoms of Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and Other Cognitive Disorders

Other Mental Health Diagnostic Symptoms and Criteria 

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